Countries around the world are making plans for relaxing lockdown and restarting life with the coronavirus. But, scientists and medical researchers are also working everyday for developing potential treatments and vaccines for the disease.
The World Health Organization has named the top 7 or 8 candidates that they have positive hopes for as COVID-19 vaccines.
The following are the potential COVID-19 vaccines:
The US-based Moderna Therapeutics issued a statement that it has been approved by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) to conduct the phase 2 clinical trials of its potential COVID-19 vaccine. It should be noted that Moderna has already conducted phase 1 trials of its vaccine named mRNA-1273 in Seattle, Washington. It was tested on 45 healthy volunteers, who were administered the vaccine 28 days apart.
It works by carrying the molecular instructions for the human cells and instructing them to make the viral protein. This triggers the body’s immune system to fight the virus.
The phase 2 trial will be conducted on 600 healthy volunteers, divided into two groups, one between the age of 18-55 years old, while the other group will have individuals over 55 years old.
Novavax Inc was recently given funding of 388 million dollars from the Because the the vaccine candidate NVX-CoV2373 has shown promising results. The biotech company is preparing to conduct human trials on 130 volunteers from Australia. The vaccine has been created from a genetic sequence of the SARS-COV-2 virus and single and double dose of the vaccine showed promising results on baboons and mice.
INOVIO Pharmaceuticals is a biotechnology company that was also given funding of 6.9 million dollars for developing a DNA-based vaccine candidate. It has already completed phase 1 of clinical study on 40 healthy volunteers.
It should be noted that INOVIO went from producing a vaccine to conducting trials in just 83 days. Phase 2 of the trial will be conducted in the last week of May where the 40 volunteers will be injected with its vaccine candidate INO-4800. The result of the vaccine’s potential as a COVID-19 vaccine is expected to be out by the end of June, after which phase 2/3 of the trial will proceed.
Pfizer and BNTECH vaccine
US drugmaker Pfizer has collaborated with a German company BNTECH for developing a vaccine for COVID-19. They are currently working on four RNA vaccine candidates. Their vaccine candidate ‘BNT162’ is based on messenger RNA (mRNA) technology and the company has already started doing trials in Germany. They plan to dose patients for the US-based clinical trials starting from early July. The trial will be conducted by giving 360 healthy individuals different dosing regimes.
Johnson & Johnson vaccine
Johnson & Johnson is another major player in the corona vaccine race. The company is currently working on an adenovirus-based vaccine and is planning to initiate a Phase 1 clinical study in September 2020. The company also aims to increase its manufacturing capacity and make around 1 billion doses of its potential vaccine by the end of 2021, if they’re successful. The company expects the first batch of the vaccine to be available by early 2021.